Preview Mode Links will not work in preview mode

The A&P Professor Podcast
TAPP Radio

Content updates and teaching advice for teachers of human anatomy & physiology (A&P) from professor, author, and mentor Kevin Patton. 

Have a question, comment, or an idea for an episode you'd like to hear—or in which you would like to participate or help plan? Contact host Kevin Patton. Or call the podcast hotline at 1-833-LION-DEN (1-833-546-6336).

For more details on each episode—including transcripts—please visit The A&P Professor website.

Sep 21, 2021

Have you ever really considered the actual meaning that word "normal" in the context of teaching anatomy and physiology? Is it even meaningful at all? We explore that in the context of human body temperature in Episode 101. And I give some practical tips as we continue our conversation about my open, online, randomized testing scheme.

0:00:00 | Introduction

0:00:47 | What Does Normal Mean?

0:08:32 | Sponsored by AAA

0:10:01 | What is Normal Body Temperature?

0:27:21| Sponsored by HAPI

0:29:13 | In Our Last Episode...

0:32:20 | Sponsored by HAPS

0:33:35 | Practical Tips on Testing

0:52:39 | What About Lab Practicals?

1:01:31 | Staying Connected


★ If you cannot see or activate the audio player, go to:

🏅 Apply for your credential (badge/certificate) for listening to this episode:

❓ Please take the anonymous survey:

☝️ Questions & Feedback: 1-833-LION-DEN (1-833-546-6336)

✔️ Follow The A&P Professor on Twitter, Facebook, Blogger, Revue, Tumblr, or Instagram! @theAPprofessor

📰 Get the almost-daily TAPP Science & Education Updates


Nobody realizes that some people expend tremendous energy merely to be normal. (Albert Camus)


What Does "Normal" Mean?

7.5 minutes

What does "normal" mean? In this segment, Kevin asks whether that (very commonly used) term is really all that helpful.

Note: In my narration, I estimated 30% of the text in my Anatomy & Physiology textbook is the word "normal." That was hyperbole. To make a point. That percentage is not accurate. Nor is is it "normal."

brass old-fashioned balance


Sponsored by AAA

1.5 minutes

A searchable transcript for this episode, as well as the captioned audiogram of this episode, are sponsored by the American Association for Anatomy (AAA) at

Searchable transcript

Captioned audiogram 

Don't forget—HAPS members get a deep discount on AAA membership!

AAA logo


What is Normal Body Temperature?

17 minutes

The "normal" discussion continues by examining ideas about what the average human body temperature is. Hint: it's NOT 37°C. And...wait for's getting lower over time!

★ A Critical Appraisal of 98.6°F, the Upper Limit of the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich (Mackowiak article in JAMA)

★ Decreasing human body temperature in the United States since the Industrial Revolution (article from eLife)

★ eLife Podcast Episode 63 (segment 4 features an author of the cited eLife article)

★ Introduction to A&P (Kevin's student outline that covers body temp issues)

thermometer used for body temperature


Sponsored by HAPI Online Graduate Program

1.5 minute

The Master of Science in Human Anatomy & Physiology Instruction—the MS-HAPI—is a graduate program for A&P teachers, especially for those who already have a graduate/professional degree. A combination of science courses (enough to qualify you to teach at the college level) and courses in contemporary instructional practice, this program helps you be your best in both on-campus and remote teaching. Kevin Patton is a faculty member in this program at Northeast College of Health Sciences. Check it out!

Logo of Northeast College of Health Sciences, Human Anatomy & Physiology Instruction


In Our Last Episode...

3 minutes

A brief recap of the two previous episodes, which prepares us for some follow-up discussion.

Quizzed About Tests | FAQs About Patton Test Strategies | TAPP 99

More Quizzing About Kevin’s Wacky Testing Scheme | Book Club | TAPP 100
an open blank book with caption: open-book testing, does it work?


Sponsored by HAPS

1.5 minute

The Human Anatomy & Physiology Society (HAPS) is a sponsor of this podcast.  You can help appreciate their support by clicking the link below and checking out the many resources and benefits found there. Watch for virtual town hall meetings and upcoming regional meetings!

Anatomy & Physiology Society

HAPS logo


Practical Tips on Testing

19 minutes

All kinds of practical tips on using randomized tests, why we (especially) need transparency when using them, making test items, formats, student-generated test items, and more.

★ Teaching in Higher Ed podcast with Bonni Stachowiak Episode 350 Ungrading with Susan D. Blum (includes a comment by Bonnie regarding adopting radical strategies in disciplines with board exams)

Testing as Teaching (online seminar containing info on my use of Respondus test-editing software)

Test Question Templates Help Students Learn | TAPP 70 (episode with Greg Crowther explaining his TQT system)

Weight Stigma! The Difficult Cadaver | Journal Club Episode | TAPP 93 (episode with Krista Rompolski and a discussion of weight bias among health professionals)

Online testing


What About Lab Practicals?

8.5 minutes

More on how similar test items can cause issues for students who don't carefully examine each test item. Can open, online, randomized testing be used as a strategy to help students prepare for their lab practicals? Maybe even supplement or replace lab practicals during a pivot (like, um, er, a pandemic)?





If the hyperlinks here are not active, go to to find the episode page.

★ More details at the episode page:

★ Transcript available in the transcript box:

★ Need help accessing resources locked behind a paywall? Check out this advice from Episode 32 to get what you need!

Take The A&P Professor experience to the next level!

Earn cash by referring other A&P faculty to this podcast:

Tools & Resources

★ TAPP Science & Education Updates:

★ Amazon:

★ Text Expander:


★ Snagit & Camtasia:

★ Krisp Free Noise-Cancelling App:

★ JotForm (build forms for free):

★ The A&P Professor Logo Items:


★ Transcript and captions for this episode are supported by the American Association for Anatomy |

★ The Human Anatomy & Physiology Society provides marketing support for this podcast |

★ Distribution of this episode is supported by the Northeast College of Health Sciences online graduate program in Human Anatomy & Physiology Instruction (HAPI) |

Clicking on sponsor links helps let them know you appreciate their support of this podcast!

Follow The A&P Professor on  Twitter, Facebook, Blogger, Revue, Tumblr, or Instagram @theAPprofessor

The A&P Professor® and Lion Den® are registered trademarks of Lion Den Inc. (Kevin Patton)

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. I may be compensated for links to sponsors and certain other links.