Oct 7, 2019
Host Kevin Patton summarizes the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to three scientists "for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability." A special bonus episode.
00:41 | Introduction to Bonus Episode
02:00 | Sponsored by HAPS
02:24 | Summary of Discovery
04:13 | Oxygen at Center Stage
05:24 | HIF Enters the Scene
08:08 | Sponsored by AAA
08:26 | VHL - An Unexpected Partner
11:37 | Oxygen sHIFts the Balance
13:20 | Oxygen Shapes Physiology & Pathology
15:15 | Sponsored by HAPI Online Graduate Program
15:48 | Our Course
23:46 | Staying Connected
Singing is like a celebration of oxygen. (Björk)
Kevin introduces the bonus episode, explaining that he's sharing the press release for the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. It's chunked for clarity.
Press release: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Media AB 2019. Mon. 7 Oct 2019. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2019/press-release/>
The Human Anatomy & Physiology Society (HAPS) is a sponsor of this podcast. You can help appreciate their support by clicking the link below and checking out the many resources and benefits found there. There are a bunch of 1-day regional workshops scattered all over the continent. There's probably one near you coming up this year (or next)!
During evolution, mechanisms developed to ensure a sufficient supply of oxygen to tissues and cells.
When oxygen levels are low (hypoxia), HIF-1α is protected from degradation and accumulates in the nucleus, where it associates with ARNT and binds to specific DNA sequences (HRE) in hypoxia-regulated genes (1). At normal oxygen levels, HIF-1α is rapidly degraded by the proteasome (2). Oxygen regulates the degradation process by the addition of hydroxyl groups (OH) to HIF-1α (3). The VHL protein can then recognize and form a complex with HIF-1α leading to its degradation in an oxygen-dependent manner (4). https://my-ap.us/35fm0O6
The awarded mechanism for oxygen sensing has fundamental importance in physiology, for example for our metabolism, immune response and ability to adapt to exercise. Many pathological processes are also affected. Intensive efforts are ongoing to develop new drugs that can either inhibit or activate the oxygen-regulated machinery for treatment of anemia, cancer and other diseases. https://my-ap.us/2LW2cIb
The Master of Science in Human Anatomy & Physiology Instruction—the MS-HAPI—is a graduate program for A&P teachers. A combination of science courses (enough to qualify you to teach at the college level) and courses in contemporary instructional practice, this program helps you power up your teaching. Kevin Patton is a faculty member in this program. Check it out!
Semenza, G.L, Nejfelt, M.K., Chi, S.M. & Antonarakis, S.E. (1991). Hypoxia-inducible nuclear factors bind to an enhancer element located 3’ to the human erythropoietin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 88, 5680-5684 my-ap.us/2ontmP8
Wang, G.L., Jiang, B.-H., Rue, E.A. & Semenza, G.L. (1995). Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS heterodimer regulated by cellular O2 tension. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 92, 5510-5514 my-ap.us/2IxLUD5
Maxwell, P.H., Wiesener, M.S., Chang, G.-W., Clifford, S.C., Vaux, E.C., Cockman, M.E., Wykoff, C.C., Pugh, C.W., Maher, E.R. & Ratcliffe, P.J. (1999). The tumour suppressor protein VHL targets hypoxia-inducible factors for oxygen-dependent proteolysis. Nature, 399, 271-275 my-ap.us/2op4XbP
Mircea, I., Kondo, K., Yang, H., Kim, W., Valiando, J., Ohh, M., Salic, A., Asara, J.M., Lane, W.S. & Kaelin Jr., W.G. (2001) HIFa targeted for VHL-mediated destruction by proline hydroxylation: Implications for O2 sensing. Science, 292, 464-468 my-ap.us/2IxIf8t
Jakkola, P., Mole, D.R., Tian, Y.-M., Wilson, M.I., Gielbert, J., Gaskell, S.J., von Kriegsheim, A., Heberstreit, H.F., Mukherji, M., Schofield, C.J., Maxwell, P.H., Pugh, C.W. & Ratcliffe, P.J. (2001). Targeting of HIF-α to the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex by O2-regulated prolyl hydroxylation. Science, 292, 468-472 my-ap.us/35i4wR9
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